### Strutt Help

Prediction of Vibration Vibro Replacement (TRL)
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An initial estimate of possible vibration levels arising from vibro replacement (vibrating stone column) activities can be obtained from the following equation:

`\nu_(res)=k_c/x^(1.4)`

where:
- `k_c=33`, with a 50% probability of the vibration level being exceeded
- `k_c=44`, with a 33% probability of the vibration level being exceeded
- `k_c=95`, with a 5% probability of the vibration level being exceeded
- `x` is the distance measured along the ground surface from the pile (m)
- `\nu_(res)` is the peak particle velocity (mm/s)

Source: Transport Research Laboratory Report 429 *Groundborne vibration caused by mechanised construction works* (2000), Equation 22

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